Relativity, Black Holes and Big Bang
Relativity, Black Holes and Big Bang
Once upon a time there were two students sitting in your classroom, unaware that love was about to strike. Off they drove into the sunset after their wedding to start their lives together.
Love is a harsh taskmaster,
and soon after the birth of their triplets, the lovely bride sets off on a voyage around the galaxy, leaving Mr. Mom at home with the three charming children.
She returns in time, in a relative way, to her relatives, to discover that Einstein has done terrible things to them while she was gone.
She was still young and beautiful, and they were old, wizened, and bitter.
Many physicists, including Einstein himself, were also bitter to discover that the universe was not infinite at all, but extremely finite in time and space.
...had not even really gotten comfortable with space and time warping, the universe having a starting point, and all of that relativistic confusion before Quantum Weirdness arrived on the scene. Einstein, finally comfortable with his own discoveries, spent much of his life pretty aggravated over quantum mechanics.
Sadly for him, but good for us, he was (how to say this nicely?) completely wrong. In a really intelligent way, of course.
There were particles going through two holes at the same time.
Cats neither alive nor dead unless somebody looked at them.
Particles not only knowing when someone was looking at them, but changing their little particle minds back in time, just to tick us off.
Particles not bouncing off lead walls, and not going through lead walls, but just...skipping the walls altogether.
And the entire universe starting up from a tiny little particle that only would have given us a universe to look at if someone had been there, before time and space existed, just to look at the tiny little particle.
Not so much the Big Bang as the Big Look.
And then they tell us that if we think we understand all of this, well, then we just haven't thought about it enough yet.
Einstein wondered, "Does God play dice with the universe?"
Yup. In a manner of speaking.
And so the universe is not purely deterministic, since things happen without a cause all the time at the quantum level.
And it is not purely reductionistic, since when we take things apart to the smallest level, not only don't we understand them better, we don't understand them at all.
Isn't that comforting?
...tells us that sometimes things just fall completely apart for no apparent reason.
That sometimes things happen, and nothing happens, and sometimes the same things happen (more or less), and all hell breaks loose.
Like the Challenger Space Shuttle.
One tiny rubber ring gets a little bit cold, and boom.
It wasn't pretty.
But Chaos also tells us that sometimes, unpredictably and wonderfully, we get order out of chaos.
And maybe even life itself.
Chaos out of order. Order out of Chaos. Makes about as much sense as particles knowing that you are looking at them.
Good science seems to work that way. The universe may be a machine, but it's unpredictable and prone to collapsing into chaos.
You'd think that in the computer age, we'd have no problem with that.
...tells us that sometimes we get order out of chaos.
Complexity Theory tells that we get order for nothing.
That the universe seems compelled to order itself spontaneously.
It's unpredictable. It's complicated. It's interdependent.
That the whole is far greater than the sum of the parts.
The question becomes, where does the complicated, unpredictable, fascinating compulsion to higher order come from?
As Stephen Hawking wondered, "Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing? What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"
A Brief History of the Universe
A Brief History of the Universe
The Anthropic Principle...
...presented to the physics world by physicist Brandon Carter and championed by Princeton’s John Wheeler (who gave Black Holes their name), postulates that not only is the universe precisely balanced so as to produce life, it also states that the universe needs intelligent observers living in it to give it a real existence.
Because, as Quantum Mechanics insists, nothing happens in nature without an observation.
Does it all come down to this then?
Unless we are here to look at the universe, it wouldn't exist?
And who looked at it in the first place, back before time and space, to bring it into existence at all, and to keep it running until we arrived on the scene?
“Copernicus may have dislodged man from the center of the universe, but the Anthropic Principle seems to restore him to that privileged position.
“Many physicists despise it; one has depicted it as a ‘virus’ infecting the minds of his fellow theorists.
“Others accept the Anthropic Principle, but in a spirit of gloom.
“Still others seem to take perverse pleasure in it.
“The controversy among these factions has been likened to ‘a high-school-cafeteria food fight.’”
And if you thought that was controversy, wait till you hear about the Multiverse.
Evolution unleashed Is evolutionary science due for a major overhaul – or is talk of ‘revolution’ misguided? https://aeon.co/essays/science-in-flux-is-a-revolution-brewing-in-evolutionary-theory?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_campaign=74b7df1338-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2019_05_09_01_34&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_411a82e59d-74b7df1338-68940989
How Rare is *Intelligent* Life in the Galaxy? The Current State of the Drake Equation and the Chances for Intelligent Life Beyond Earth - “Earth may be the 1.” https://medium.com/predict/how-rare-is-intelligent-life-in-the-galaxy-7ca94162e569
The Brain That Remade Itself Doctors removed one-sixth of this child’s brain — and what was left did something incredible https://onezero.medium.com/the-brain-that-remade-itself-bcc7b3a43cff
Neutron Stars: Nature’s Weirdest Form of Matter https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/neutron-stars-natures-weirdest-form-of-matter/?utm_source=promotion&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=mar-sa-alert&utm_content=article&utm_term=SI-SCA-20190301_CVP_v1_s1_____OptinYes&spMailingID=58518266&spUserID=NTY1MTYwODUxMwS2&spJobID=1582358236&spReportId=MTU4MjM1ODIzNgS2
The Inflated Debate Over Cosmic Inflation
Why the majority of physicists are on one side of a recent exchange of letters https://medium.com/@NautilusMag/the-inflated-debate-over-cosmic-inflation-bc1c28deb6b3
Your brain doesn’t contain memories. It is memories.
A Single Cell Hints at a Solution to the Biggest Problem in Computer Science One small amoeba found a solution to the traveling salesman problem faster than our best algorithms. What does it know that we don't? https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/a25686417/amoeba-math/?source=nl&utm_source=nl_pop&utm_medium=email&date=122718&src=nl&utm_campaign=15336293
The Strange Similarity of Neuron and Galaxy Networks Your life’s memories could, in principle, be stored in the universe’s structure. https://medium.com/s/nautilus-emergence/the-strange-similarity-of-neuron-and-galaxy-networks-8edb83bb8b1f
Bee-brained: Are insects ‘philosophical zombies’ with no inner life? Close attention to their behaviours and moods suggests otherwise. https://aeon.co/essays/inside-the-mind-of-a-bee-is-a-hive-of-sensory-activity?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=MIT_DAILY_CAMPAIGN_2018_11_27
How The Planck Satellite Forever Changed Our View Of The Universe Humanity’s greatest-ever view of the Big Bang’s leftover glow has just released their final analysis. Here’s what we’ve learned. https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/how-the-planck-satellite-forever-changed-our-view-of-the-universe-3b94484f376d
When the model is recast to represent realistic distributions of uncertainty, we find a substantial probability of there being no other intelligent life in our observable universe, and thus that there should be little surprise when we fail to detect any signs of it. https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.02404
Here Are 50 Possible Solutions to the Fermi Paradox: We're pretty convinced that Donald Trump, Madonna, and Dennis Rodman are aliens. Maybe Lady Gaga. They're just messin' with us. https://curiosity.com/topics/here-are-50-possible-solutions-to-the-fermi-paradox-curiosity?utm_campaign=daily-digest&utm_source=sendgrid&utm_medium=email
How Many Galaxies Have Already Disappeared From Our Perspective? Dark energy tells us that the Universe’s expansion is accelerating. Here’s what that means for our disappearing Universe. https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/ask-ethan-how-many-galaxies-have-already-disappeared-from-our-perspective-27fcd3e7377e
Really Smart Birds doing really clever things: https://aeon.co/essays/how-city-birds-evolved-to-be-smarter-than-rural-birds
Brainless learning by slime molds, pea pods, potted mimosas, and sea slugs, but not politicians: https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23531340-700-smart-but-dumb-probing-the-mysteries-of-brainless-intelligence/
A solar mass black hole would live for about 10⁶⁷ years before evaporating, but the black hole at the center of our galaxy would live for 10^20th times as long before decaying. The crazy thing about it all is that right up until the final fraction-of-a-second, the black hole still has an event horizon. Once you form a singularity, you remain a singularity — and you retain an event horizon — right up until the moment your mass goes to zero. https://medium.com/starts-with-a-bang/ask-ethan-what-happens-when-a-black-holes-singularity-evaporates-217a3eae467f
Bad language but very funny alert. Quantum Mechanics explained in 5 minutes - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lstXHHlLrKo&feature=em-subs_digest
Is Matter Conscious? - http://nautil.us/issue/47/consciousness/is-matter-conscious
The Laniakea Supercluster (actually kind of the mega super dooper supercluster), the Virgo Supercluster, and our place in it: https://futurism.com/videos/detailed-map-date-place-universe/
Materialism is out and the Quantum is in: https://aeon.co/essays/materialism-alone-cannot-explain-the-riddle-of-consciousness?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_campaign=b381752f7b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_03_10&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_411a82e59d-b381752f7b-68940989
Lamarck is back? - Radical, paradigm-shattering evolving evolution - https://aeon.co/essays/on-epigenetics-we-need-both-darwin-s-and-lamarck-s-theories?utm_source=Aeon+Newsletter&utm_campaign=17a198ea34-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2016_11_09&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_411a82e59d-17a198ea34-68940989
Moons over Jupiter - first time ever to see moons rotating around a planet - http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/07/the-dreamiest-view-in-the-universe/489956/?utm_source=nl-atlantic-daily-070516
The very funny (bad language alert) Theory of Everything - http://www.sciencealert.com/watch-a-sh-tty-explanation-of-the-theory-of-everything
The largest galaxy in the universe - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UE8yHySiJ4A
Voyage into a black hole - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eI9CvipHl_c
Watch the sun burn for 30 minutes - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tmbeLTHC_0
The Two-Slit Experiment with molecules instead of just photons - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLRMbVCrcLc
Reality, relativity, causality or free will? Take quantum theory at face value and at least one of them is an illusion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShD_tCdfYSk
Our supercluster of galaxies in 3D: http://vimeo.com/104704518
Nature is made of math, and it is so cool - http://aeon.co/film/nature-by-numbers-a-short-film-about-the-elegance-of-mathematics/
Space and Time - one of them has to go? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umfjGNlxWcw (from Science of the Day page, 28 Aug 2014)
The Fermi Paradox - Where is Everyone? Why haven’t we found any aliens yet, or why haven’t they found us? http://waitbutwhy.com/2014/05/fermi-paradox.html
Watch the ocean currents flow: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/7009056027/
Watch the winds blow: http://earth.nullschool.net/
North American Wind flow in real-time: http://hint.fm/wind/index.html
The Zombie Ant: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8
String theory deftly explained by, um, Queen? Queen-ish. Brilliant.
The Atlas of the Universe - from our neighborhood to the Local Group to the Virgo Supercluster and beyond - http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/
The sound that Big Bang made, the sound of the universe coming into being:
A journey through the universe at an unimaginably large scale - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74IsySs3RGU&feature=related
The emergence of a galaxy - 14 billion years in a minute or two - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=h9za1CP9ImA
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAVjF_7ensg
Taking a tour of Orion - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Xd8KPzJP0_U#
Quantum Mechanics explained, again, sort of - http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9622000/9622751.stm
Quantum Levitation - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Ws6AAhTw7RA
Going at light speed - http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=JQnHTKZBTI4#!
Science put to music - http://www.symphonyofscience.com/videos.html
Star size comparison - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEheh1BH34Q
Power of Ten - from the largest to the smallest - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fKBhvDjuy0
From the founder of fractals, everything is fractals - http://www.ted.com/talks/benoit_mandelbrot_fractals_the_art_of_roughness.html
African fractals - http://www.ted.com/talks/ron_eglash_on_african_fractals.html
Seeing Saturn - www.ted.com/talks/carolyn_porco_flies_us_to_saturn.html
Brian Green on String Theory - http://www.ted.com/talks/brian_greene_on_string_theory.html
How long is a piece of string? All of humanity fits into a sugar cube? - check it out on the BBC - http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8363934.stm
Water Drop at 2000 Frames per Second - http://www.flixxy.com/water-drop.htm
Jet smashes into concrete wall at 500 mph - http://www.strimoo.com/video/14427516/concrete-plane-Veoh.html
Water balloon burst at 2000 frames/second - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vajL48mwsCA
Lamarck is back - evolution happens outside of random mutation - www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090412081315.htm
Can fractals make sense out of quantum mechanics? www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127011.600-can-fractals-make-sense-of-the-quantum-world.html?full=true
Metal bits self-assemble into snakes: http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/snakes.html?npu=1&mbid=yhp
The inner life of cells, from Harvard:
The magical version with cool music: www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/6850.html
The academic version with inscrutable biological language: http://multimedia.mcb.harvard.edu/media.html
Anatomy of a Black Hole (animated): www.thinktechnologies.com/portfolio/demos/Blackhole.html
Fractal Recursions: www.fractal-recursions.com/
Blue Oyster Fractal Spiral Zoom: www.infectiousvideos.com/p/1596
Evidence for Big Bang: http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests.html
Astronomy Picture of the Day: http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html
Relativity, Albert Einstein, pub Crown; Big Bang, Simon Singh, Fourth Estate/HarperCollins; Einstein: His Life and Universe, Walter Isaacson, Simon & Schuster; The Edge of Infinity, Paul Davies; The Empire of the Stars, Arthur I. Miller, pub Abacus
Einstein Defiant, Edmund Blair Bolles, Joseph Henry Press; Quantum Enigma, Rosenblum/Kuttner, pub Oxford; Entanglement: The Greatest Mystery in Physics, Amir Aczel, pub Four Walls Eight Windows NY
Chaos, James Gleick, pub Viking
Complexity, M. Mitchell Waldrop, pub Touchstone/Simon & Schuster; Emergence, Steven Johnson, pub Touchstone/Simon & Schuster; At Home in the Universe, Stuart Kauffman, pub Oxford; The Cosmic Blueprint, Paul Davies
The Goldilocks Enigma/Cosmic Jackpot, Paul Davies; The Fingerprint of God, pub Promise Pub., Hugh Ross; Alone in the Universe, pub Wiley, John Gribbin
The Physics of Time, Richard Muller, pub WW Norton & Co., Reality is not what it seems, The Order of time, Carlo Rovelli, pub Riverhead Books
Superforce, God and the New Physics, The Mind of God, About Time, The Accidental Universe, The Last Three Minutes, pub Touchstone/Simon & Schuster, pub Houghton Mifflin - Paul Davies
Schroedinger’s Kittens.. Pub Little/Brown, Q is for Quantum, Pub Free Press, The Search for Superstrings, Symmetry, and the Theory of Everything, Pub Little Brown & Co., The Origins of the Future, pub Yale, Annus Mirabilis, pub Chamberlain Bros, John Gribbon
A Brief History of Time, Black Holes & Baby Universes, pub Bantam, The Theory of Everything, pub New Millennium, Stephen Hawking
The Science of God..., Pub Free Press, The Hidden Face of God, Pub Simon & Schuster - by Gerald L. Schroeder
The Elegant Universe, Pub Vintage, The Fabric of the Cosmos, Pub Knopf, Brian Greene
The Evolutionists, Richard Morris, pub Owl Books
The Genius Within, Frank Vertosick, Jr., pub Harcourt
A Short History of Nearly Everything, Bill Bryson, pub Broadway
The Emergence of Everything, Harold Mororwitz, pub Oxford
The Fire in the Equations, Kitty Ferguson, Templeton Foundation Press
Fractal Cosmos, Jeff Berkowitz, Pub Amber Lotus/Lifesmith
How the universe got its spots, Janna Levin, Phoenix/Orion Ltd.
Just Six Numbers, Martin Rees, Basic Books
God's Equation, Amir D. Aczel, MJF Books/Fine Communications
Origins of Existence, Fred Adams, Free Press
Infinite in all Directions, Freeman Dyson, pub Harper & Row
In Search of Deep Time, Henry Gee, Comstock/Cornell
A World without Time, Palle Yourgrau, pub Basic Books
The Dependent Gene, David Moore, pub Times
There is a God, How the World’s Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind, Antony Flew, pub HarperOne
The Language of God, Francis Collins, pub Free Press
Albert Einstein’s Vision, Barry Parker, pub Prometheus
The Universe in the Rearview Mirror, pub Dutton - Dave Goldberg
Creation and Time, Beyond the Cosmos, Creator and the Cosmos, pub Navpress - Hugh Ross
Investigations, Stuart Kauffman, pub Oxford
Death by Black Hole, Neil deGrasse Tyson, pub Norton
Faster than the Speed of Light, Joao Magueijo, pub Perseus
The End of Time, Julian Barbour, pub Oxford
Einstein’s Universe, Calder, pub Nigel/Wings Books
The First Three Minutes, Steven Weinberg, pub Basic Books
Coming of Age in the Milky Way, pub Morrow , The Whole Shebang, pub Simon & Schuster, Timothy Ferris
Cosmic Coincidences, John Gribbon & Martin Rees, Pub Bantam
The God Particle, Leon Lederman, pub Houghton Mifflin
The God Experiment, Russell Stannard, pub Hidden Spring
The Matter Myth, Paul Davies/John Gribbon, pub Simon & Schuster
Superstrings, Peat, pub Contempory Books
Wrinkles in Time, Smoot & Davidson, pub Morrow
Einstein, Ronald Clark, pub Avon
Fuzzy Thinking, Bart Kosko, pub Hyperion
Vital Dust, Christian de Duve, pub Basic Books
Cosmic Code, Heinz Pagels, Pub Simon & Schuster
Alice in QuantumLand, Robert Gilmore, Pub Copernicus
The Moment of Creation, James Trefil, Pub Collier
Shadow of the Mind, Pub Oxford, The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind, Pub Cambridge, Roger Penrose
African Exodus, Christopher Stringer & Robin McKie, Pub Henry Holt
The Quark and the Jaguar, Murray Gell-Man, Pub WH Freeman
Quantum Questions, edited by Ken Wilber, Pub Shanbhala,
Finding God in Physics, Roy Masters, Pub Foundation of Human Understanding
God and the Astronomers, Robert Jastrow, Pub Warner
The Collapse of Chaos, Jack Cohen/Ian Stewart, Pub Viking
Conscious Mind in the Physical World, Euan Squires, Pub Adam Hilger
Quarks, Chaos, & Christianity, Pub Crossroads; Belief in God in an Age of Science, John Polkinghorne, Pub Yale
Beyond the Quantum, Pub Bantam, The Holographic Universe, Pub Harper Perennial, Michael Talbot
Our Cosmic Habitat, Martin Rees, Pub Princeton University Press
Chaos and Complexity, Russell/Murphey/Peacocke, pub Vatican Observatory/Center for Theology and Natural Sciences, Berkeley CA
Where does the weirdness go?, David Lindley, pub Basic Books
A Shortcut through Time, George Johnson, pub Knopf
Nature's Chaos, Gleick/Porter, pub Little/Brown
Sudden Origins, Jeffrey Schwartz, pub Wiley & Sons
The Quantum Brain, Jeffrey Satinover, pub Wiley & Sons
Fragments of Infinity, Ivars Peterson, pub Wiley & Sons
Atom, Lawrence Krauss, pub Little/Brown
The End of Certainty, Ilya Prigogine, pub Free Press
The Garden in the Machine, Claus Emmeche, Pub Princeton
Quantum Theology, Diarmuid O’Murchu, Pub Crossroad
Rock of Ages, Stephen Jay Gould, Ballantine
The Bigger Bang, James Lidsey, Cambridge
Liars, Lovers, and Heroes, Steven Quartz/Terrence Sejnowski, William Morrow/Harper Collins
Signs of Life, Richard Sole/Brian Goodwin, Basic Books
The Third Culture, John Brockman, Touchstone/Simon & Schuster
Why God won't go away, Newburg/D'Aquili/Rause, Ballantine
Origins, Neil deGrasse Tyson/Donald Goldsmith, Norton
God at the speed of light, T.Lee Baumann, ARE Press
The Meaning of it all, Richard Feynman, Helix/Perseus Books
The Big Bang, Joseph Silk, WH Freeman & Co.
A Shortcut through Time, George Johnson, Knopf
Quantum: a Guide for the Perplexed, Jim Al-Khalili
Cosmos, Bios, Theos, Margenau & Varghese
Setting Sail for the Universe, Donald Fernie, pub Rutgers University Press
Alpha & Omega The Search for the Beginning and the End of the Universe, Charles Seife, pub Viking
Of Moths and Men, Judith Hooper, pub Norton
A Different Universe, Robert B. Laughlin, pub Basic Books
The Measure of God, Larry Witham, pub Harper SF
The Genius Within, Frank Vertosick Jr, pub Harcourt
Challenging Nature, Lee Silver, pub HarperCollins
Beyond Einstein issue, Scientific American September 2004
From the Big Bang to Fridge Magnets, Paul Davies, IB World Magazine December 1997
Science Sees the Light, by Gregg Easterbrook, The New Republic Magazine, Oct 12 1998
The New Convergence, by Gregg Easterbrook, Wired Magazine Dec 2002
Science Finds God, Newsweek, July 20 1998
Beyond Physics - Renowned Scientists contemplate the evidence for God, Scientific American website
Science Finds God, The Saturday Evening Post, Jan/Feb 1999
Reaching to the stars -- and beyond, James Gleick, from The New York Times in the San Jose Mercury News, date?
Physics Coup: Atom in 2 Places, Denver Post, Feb 22, 2000
Quantum Wizardry, Dallas Morning News, July 30 2001
Schroedinger's Cat, www.lassp.cornell.edu
Team discovers way to put brakes on the speed of light, San Jose Mercury News, Feb 18, 1999
Scientists tackle 'Schroedinger's Cat' paradox, www.cnn.com
Quantum computing with molecules, Scientific American website
Life, the universe, and everything, Time, Feb 22 1993
Wasp uses spider..., Denver Post Dec 3 2000
The Mimic Octopus, Asian Diver, www.asiandiver.com